1 valuable tough heavy hardwood from various hickory trees
2 American hardwood tree bearing edible nuts [syn: hickory tree]
EtymologyFrom Algonquin pawcohiccora.
- /ˈhɪkəriː/ or /ˈhɪkriː/
- Of or pertaining to the hickory tree or its wood.
wood of the tree
- Finnish: hikkori
- For other meanings of Hickory please see Hickory (disambiguation).
Another Asian species, Beaked Hickory, previously listed as Carya sinensis, is now treated in a separate genus Annamocarya, as Annamocarya sinensis.
Hickory flowers are small yellow-green catkins produced in spring. They are anemophilous and self-incompatible. The fruit is a globose or oval nut, 2–5 cm long and 1.5–3 cm diameter, enclosed in a four-valved husk which splits open at maturity. The nut shell is thick and bony in most species, thin in a few, notably C. illinoinensis; it is divided into two halves which split apart when the seed germinates.
Species and classificationIn the APG system, genus Carya (and the whole Juglandaceae family) has been recently moved to the Fagales order.
- Carya sect. Carya — typical hickories
- Carya floridana Scrub Hickory
- Carya glabra Pignut Hickory
- Carya myristiciformis Nutmeg Hickory
- Carya ovalis Red Hickory (treated as a synonym of C. glabra by Flora N. Amer.)
- Carya ovata Shagbark
- Carya ovata var. australis (syn. C. carolinae-septentrionalis) Southern Shagbark Hickory
- Carya laciniosa Shellbark Hickory
- Carya pallida Sand Hickory
- Carya texana Black Hickory
- Carya tomentosa (syn. C. alba) Mockernut Hickory
- Carya sect. Apocarya — pecans
- Carya sect. Sinocarya — asian hickories
Hickory is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species. These include:
Another insect that uses the hickory tree as a food source is the hickory leaf stem gall phylloxera (Phylloxera caryaecaulis). Phylloxeridae are related to aphids and have a similarly complex life cycle. Eggs hatch in early spring and the galls quickly form around the developing insects. Phylloxera galls may damage weakened or stressed hickories, but are generally harmless. Deformed leaves and twigs can rain down from the tree in the spring as squirrels break off infected tissue and eat the galls, possibly for the protein content of the phylloxera, or possibly because the galls are fleshy and tasty to the squirrels.
UsesHickory wood is extremely tough, yet flexible, and is valued for tool handles, bows (like yew), wheel spokes, carts, drumsticks, Lacrosse stick handles, golf club shafts (sometimes still called hickory stick, even though made of steel or graphite), the bottom of skis, walking canes etc. and for punitive use as a switch or switch (rod) (like hazel), and especially as a cane-like hickory stick in schools. Baseball bats were formerly made of hickory but are now more commonly made of ash. Hickory is also highly prized for wood-burning stoves, because of its high caloric content. Hickory wood is also a preferred type for smoke curing meats. In the Southern US, hickory is popular for cooking barbecue, as hickory grows abundantly in the region, and adds flavor to the meat. Hickory is sometimes used for hardwood flooring due to its durability and character.
A bark extract from shagbark hickory is also used in an edible syrup that is similar to maple syrup, with a slightly bitter, smoky taste.
The nuts of some species are palatable, while others are bitter and only suitable for animal feed. Shagbark and Shellbark Hickories, along with the Pecan, are regarded by some as the finest nut trees.
When cultivated for their nuts, note that because of their self-incompatibility, clonal (grafted) trees of the same cultivar cannot pollinate each other. Two or more cultivars must be planted together for successful pollination. Seedlings (grown from hickory nuts) will usually have sufficient genetic variation.
- walnut (also used in waterskis)
- Carya Large-format diagnostic photos, Morton Arboretum acc. 29-U-10
- Flora of North America: Carya
- Flora of China: Carya
- USDA Agricultural Research Service: Carya
- Edibility of different species' nuts, from a snack food manufacturer
- Comparison of eastern North American hickories at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu
- Comparison of hickory nuts at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu
hickory in Danish: Hickory
hickory in Pennsylvania German: Hickernissbaam
hickory in German: Hickory (Pflanze)
hickory in Spanish: Carya
hickory in Esperanto: Hikorio
hickory in French: Caryer
hickory in Italian: Carya
hickory in Dutch: Carya
hickory in Norwegian: Hickory
hickory in Polish: Orzesznik
hickory in Portuguese: Carya
hickory in Russian: Гикори
hickory in Finnish: Hikkorit
hickory in Swedish: Hickorysläktet